Tuesday, December 11, 2012

The sources of and responses to imperial expansion around the world from 1860 to 1914


Imperialism is the act of domination of one country over the political, economic and cultural life of another country or region.  While such practices have existed for many hundreds of years, the Age of Imperialism refers to a period in the second half of the nineteenth century to the early part of the twentieth.  Most of the imperialistic activities were carried on by Western European nations.  However, Japan and the United States also participated.

European Imperialism

What were the sources driving the imperialistic movement?

The imperialism resulted from three key factors:

1.     Nationalism prompted rival European nations to build empires in their competitive quests for power.  If one country started a colony in Africa, other European nations felt pressure to do the same.  It was a feeding frenzy to acquire property and power.

2.     The Industrial Revolution created a tremendous demand for raw materials and expanded markets for the products, which prompted industrialized European nations to seek new territories. 

3.    Both religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority inspired Europeans to impose their cultures on distant lands. Religious and humanitarian impulses inspired many people to travel to distant colonies. The desire to spread Western technology, religion, customs and traditions also fueled colonial expansion.  Probably the most popular were Catholic and Protestant missionaries who attempted to bring the Christian message to the colonies

African Colonization

Before 1870 Europeans had little presence in Africa mainly because of their lack of resistance to the area's tropical diseases.  The Industrial Revolution gave them two new weapons: vaccines for combating the diseases and rifles and machine guns for combating the African natives. The publicity generated by an expedition by the journalist Henry Stanley to find the explorer David Livingston acted as a catalyst to seek expansion. 

This started a frantic scramble by European nations to gain a presence in Africa.  In 1885, 14 nations met in Berlin and agreed to divide Africa.  By 1914 European nations controlled 90 percent of that continent.

Effects of African Imperialism

The impact on colonies was generally negative.  The colonial boundaries drawn by the European nations at Berlin often cut across old tribal boundaries or combined peoples of different and hostile tribes.  This mess is still being sorted out today, a continuing legacy of European rule. 

The colonial peoples were subjected to humiliation and suffering.  While Europeans did work to abolish slavery, they still killed thousands through forced labor in order to complete their building projects and bring the "benefits" of European civilization to Africa.

The colonies suffered the negative effects of imposing European culture upon native peoples because it was supposedly superior.  For example, Europeans imposed their agricultural techniques on Africans and, in the process, ruined the soil.  In the end, this cultural policy backfired against Europeans.  Many colonial subjects went to Europe to get college educations and brought back the dangerous ideas of liberalism, nationalism, and Marxism.  That, combined with the fact that many colonials served in European armies and had picked up on European firearms technology, helped lead to the ultimate downfall of the European colonial empires.

The multinational European companies gained substantial economic power during the period.

American Imperialism

The primary source of American imperialism was the concept of Manifest Destiny, a belief widely held by Americans in the 19th century that the United States was destined to expand across the continent.  It was used repeatedly to justify their imperialistic acts. 

Seeing the rapid global expansion of European nations, America desired to gain a presence in other lands and also prevent European countries from encroaching on their borders.  Protecting their local interests and attempting to help Cuba from Spanish oppression, America entered into a war with Spain which they very quickly won. As a result of this war the United States gained the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico. Although independent, Cuba was under American protection.

To further their imperial ambitions United States made many other significant territorial gains. They purchased Alaska from Russia and annexed Hawaii after American entrepreneurs had overthrown the Hawaiian queen. In 1917 the United States purchased the Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix) from Denmark.

In 1845 Texas joined the American republic as a state.  With their eyes on the great expanse of land in the West and under the theory of Manifest Destiny, they soon invaded Mexico and quickly won the war.  With this action the US almost doubled in size.

East Asia – Japanese Imperialism

A few years after the arrival of Commodore Perry, Japanese leaders made Japan into a great power capable of competing with Western nations. They strengthened the military, and worked to transform the nation into an industrial society. Their ever expanding industries needed more natural resources and the government felt they needed a buffer zone from the giant to the West – China.  To accomplish this they began to establish their own overseas empire. The first nation to fall to them was Korea. They continued to expand for the next few decades.

By the end of the 1800s, a handful of European countries, together with the United States, controlled nearly the entire world thus giving this age the appropriate name as the Age of Imperialism.

Saturday, October 20, 2012

How did the Columbian exchange change the balance of global forces across the world?

Why are there oranges in Florida, bananas in Ecuador, paprika in Hungary, tomatoes in Italy, pineapples in Hawaii, rubber trees in Africa, cattle in Texas,  and chocolate in Switzerland? The answer is because of the Columbian Exchange.

The Columbian Exchange was a global phenomenon whose unintended consequences changed the world forever.  Its primary effect was to change the ecology and cuisine of virtually every country in the world.  Its secondary effect was to change the balance of world power from Asia to Europe.

After Columbus discovered the Americas, Spain continued to send galleons across the Atlantic for decades to recover its gold and silver.  In the simply process of Europeans landing on the Americas seeking precious metals, a complex unintentional exchange of non-native plants, animals, and diseases from Europe to the Americas, and vice versa, was set up that would change the ecology of the world.  This exchange greatly enriched European life and had a devastating effect on life in the Americas.

In addition to the precious metals, the exchange primarily consisted of three items:  pathogens from Europe that didn’t exist in the Americas, domestic animals from Europe that didn’t exist in the Americas, and plants native to the Americas that didn’t exist in Europe or anywhere else in the world.

The Exchange modified the balance of global forces primarily in two ways.  It changed the culture of many if not most nations and increased the military and economic power of some countries, thus changing the balance of power over the globe.

The cultural changes were:

The domestic animals brought from Europe, primarily the horse, cow and pig, allowed the Natives to change from an agricultural society to a nomadic and ranching society.

Items like tomatoes, beans, cacao, peanuts, tobacco, and squash would transform the diets of all Europeans and eventually all nations.

The introduction of the potato to Europe and eventually to Ireland where they became heavily dependent them, lead to their great famine.  Tomatoes, brought to Italy from the Americas became the staple of their world famous cuisine.

Because of their lack of technology, the people of the Americas were not a global force.  However, the virtual decimation of their population wrought by the Exchange and the subsequent treatment they received destroyed their culture.

In order to exploit the resources in the Americas the Europeans imported slave labor from Africa.  Up until the mid 19th century more Africans came to the Americas than Europeans.  Thus, indirectly, the Exchange was responsible for the enslavement of a culture for more than 300 years.

The economic and military changes were:

While there were several factors that allowed the Europeans to eventually conquer the American natives, arguably the most important was disease.  They brought with them the smallpox and measles germs from which the natives had no immunity.  The result was that as many as 90% of the natives were killed off by these diseases.  This made their conquest significantly easier.

The silver and gold brought back to Europe significantly enriched their governments.  It was used to pay for goods from Asia, expanding their military, and erect extravagant governmental buildings.

Additionally, the transfer of native staples, such as efficient carbohydrate-rich crops like corn and potatoes, allowed Europeans and Africans to overcome their food shortages.   This was a major factor in allowing the population of Europe to increase substantially over the next few centuries and thus have larger militaries.

The transformation of North America into ranching for the production of pigs and cows changed the ranges of Western American into a pork and beef production centers, eventually making it a major economic area.

Based upon these changes in the global peoples and economies it is clear that the Columbian Exchange produced major changes in the way the world was to function for hundreds of years.

Causes and processes of European conquests of the Americas explained

The conquest of the New World began when Columbus asked Spain to finance his trip across the Atlantic Ocean in order to open a trade route to Japan and China.  He also intended to Christianize the natives and enrich himself and the queen.   It was not a single event such as Columbus’ discovery but consisted of many events and decisions that lasted for about four hundred years.

Changes in technology within Europe provided them with large ships that could cross the ocean carrying many men.  The discovery of Brazilwood helped accelerated the development of ship building. The ability to fabricate steel provided them with weapons that were a force unmatched by the people in the Americas.  Among these weapons were spears, swords, and guns.

Another major cause of the conquest was the pathogens brought by the Europeans that the natives had no immunity from, basically smallpox and measles.  The Europeans were able to domesticate several animals to perform farm work.  Over the years this close relationship provided the Europeans with immunities to certain diseases.  However, in America there were virtually no domesticated animals and thus the natives did not have these immunities and were overcome with the European pathogens.

There forged steel swords were a large advantage since the natives had no similar weapons. The natives had not ever seen any structure as large as the European ships.  This gave the Europeans a godlike quality.

Initially Columbus came with three ships and 87 men.  But upon returning and relating his story of the gold he found the Spanish soon sent many more ships and men to recover the riches.

The crown devised an economic model whereby a conquistador was granted control over the native land and labor in order to extract the gold.  In return the crown imposed a tax on the extracted precious metals.  This was an economic model that worked well for everyone but the native population.

This action however was in conflict with the Church’s intent to Christianize the natives.  The friars claimed this relationship as exploitive of their potential converts.  The controversy leads to an ethical issue within Spain as to whether enslavement of New World natives was immoral.  This issue caused friar by de las Casas to write his famous book on ethics.  This argument leads to their decision on how to govern the colonies populated by the Spanish captives.

As the placer gold mines ran dry the Spanish went to the mainland and found much larger and more civilized societies.  This represented an opportunity for Spain to reap substantially larger rewards. 

Cortez and his over 500 men set out in the beginning of the sixteenth century to conquer a much larger Aztec civilization.  Their ability to do this was due primarily to:  disease, more Aztecs died of disease then were killed by the Spanish; the help of neighboring tribes who were rivals to the Aztecs; vastly superior arms; the passivity of the Aztecs warriors who were trained not to kill their rivals; and finally the use of an intermediary, the daughter of a local leader.

In addition to the Aztec civilization, the Spanish also conquered the Incas, who lived in the Andes Mountains and who population was larger than four million.  When Pizzaro arrived with only 500 soldiers the Incas were in the middle of a civil war.  Once again it was disease and overwhelming arms power that allow Pizzaro to become victorious over his more numerous opposition. 

The conquest of these peoples raised the issue of what form of government would be used to control the native people.   In general, a compromise between the conquerors and the conquered was used to maximize the chance of stability.  The stability was required to maximize the riches that they could extract from the colonies.

In North America the Spanish meet a different situation because it was much less populated and organized.  As a result the conquest was much less militant and much more cooperative.  Trading of beaver pelts was an example of diplomacy used.

With the conquest of the Aztecs and Incas Spain was in control of the New World.  This brought them two major rewards:  control over both the human and material riches of the area and a colony that would purchase Spanish products and would produce products for consumption in Europe.  This would change the balance of power between Europe and the rest of the World.